Friday, May 22, 2020

The Political Career of Daniel Webster Essay - 706 Words

The Political Career of Daniel Webster Daniel Webster contributed a large potion of the Civil War. To begin, he was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire on January 18, 1782. His parents were farmers so many people didnt know what to expect of him. Even though his parents were farmers, he still graduated from Dartmouth College in 1801. After he learned to be a lawyer, Daniel Webster opened a legal practice in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1807. Webster quickly became an experienced and very good lawyer and a Federalist party leader. In 1812, Webster was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives because of his opposition to the War of 1812, which had crippled New Englands shipping trade. After two more terms in†¦show more content†¦Replying to South Carolinas Robert Hayne in a Senate debate in 1830, Webster triumphantly defended the Union states by a very powerful but short speech. He said, Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable, made him a favorite and made him well known among many people worldwide. Webster and President Andrew Jackson joined forces in 1833 to try to change South Carolinas attempt to nullify the tariff, but Webster and the Whigs battled him on other issues including his attack on the National Bank. Webster ran for the presidency in the election of 1836 as one of the three Whig candidates, but he mostly only Massachusetts voted for him so he lost badly because no one else voted for him. For the rest of his career he tried very hard to get to the presidency and ran in many elections hoping to get his shot at the office, but it never happened and he failed every time. In 1841, Daniel Webster came close to his idea of President but was only named secretary. President William Henry Harrison appointed him to this position. When he got killed in April 1841, John Tyler was brought to the presidency. In September 1841, all the Whigs resigned from the cabinet except Webster. He remained to settle an argument with Great Britain having to do with the Maine-Canada boundary and he wanted to finish the Webster-Ashburn Treaty, which he finally did in 1842. The Whigs finally pressured WebsterShow MoreRelatedAnalysis David Brooks People Like Us1403 Words   |  6 Pagesinstead focuses on racial integration as the definition of diversity in America. He also makes assumptions that people purposefully intend to segregate themselves and underestimates their capability of living together because of their location, political values and personal appeal. Because of the United States’ history and the racism that once existed, racial integration is now a main objective in the country. Even though racial integration is a component of diversity, it is not the only demographicRead MoreThe Legacy Of John Caldwell Calhoun1555 Words   |  7 Pages Henry Clay was born in April 12th of 1777 in Hanover, Virginia. In the year 1797, Henry Clay received admission into the bar in Virginia and Kentucky. He became a top real estate and business attorney in Frankfort, Kentucky and later followed a career as a politician. Clay was elected into the Kentucky House of Representatives in the year 1803 and served until 1806. Then he served as a Senator of Kentucky from the years of 1806 and 1807, and returned to the State House of Representatives, fromRead MoreThe Great Triumvirate : American History1850 Words   |  8 Pagesthere were three politicians leading the charge to keep the Union from fracturing. These three political giants were celebrities in their time and their names are: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun. Their differences ran the gamut and they more often worked against each other than with each other, but each of the men was deeply patriotic and ambitious. They all at one point in their careers served in the Se nate and as the Secretary of State. Each of them were known to the public andRead MoreThe Doctrine Of The United States Essay1598 Words   |  7 Pagesto Andrew Jack for his renowned toughness. Spoils system A practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory and as an incentive to keep working for the party. King Andrew A nickname given to Andrew Jackson because he was a strong president who used the office to forcefully pursue his own agenda; given to him by his many political opponents that feared his use of power. Tariff of Abominations aka The TariffRead MoreDaniel Webster Essay3562 Words   |  15 PagesDaniel Webster Daniel Webster was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire, on January 18, 1782. Daniel was delicate, but a brilliant child, his family realized this, and made great expense to put Daniel and his brother Ezekiel through school. After graduating from Dartmouth College, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in Boston in 1805. Daniel Webster, was a well known public speaker and major constitutional lawyer; he was a major congressional representative for the Northern Whigs duringRead MoreA Brief Note On Sectionalism And The American Civil War1883 Words   |  8 Pagesopposite side, many northerners called for Abolition, or, the end of slavery (â€Å"Course Notes, Sectionalism and Slavery†). This ongoing conflict caused further splitting of the Union, with each side’s ideals being complete 180 ° of each others’. This political split lay almost exactly on the nation’s regional line splitting the north and south, beginning to cut the once united nation into said â€Å"sections.† This small crack would be a tiny spark that light the tinder of one of the bloodiest wars the UnitedRead MoreSummary of Jfks Profiles in Courage1509 Words   |  7 Pagespresence of moral fiber, or courage, in the careers of 8 different Senators. Throughout the book, Kennedy tells accounts of how a select few Senators showed courage and displayed moral fiber by standing their ground on certain issues when their party and constituents were in great opposition to them. In Profiles of Courage, Kennedy dedicates one chapter to each Senator and his tale of courage. The following Senators were used: John Quincy Adams, Daniel Webster, Thomas Hart Benton, Sam Houston, EdmundR ead MoreThe Revolution Of The United States1479 Words   |  6 Pagesslave states. When Jackson was popular, some states changed their qualifications for voters to grant more white male suffrage. This usually excluded free blacks from voting, even though they were allowed under the original state constitutions. Political parties began holding nominating conventions, where the party members choose the party’s candidates instead of the party’s leader. This period of time became known as the Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson’s supporters formed the Democratic Party toRead MoreAndrew Jackson : The Second President Of The Democratic Party935 Words   |  4 PagesJackson showed great leadership skills and direction. Some say he became America’s most influential and polarizing political figure between the 1820 and 1830. Jackson first ran for President in the 1824 presidential election losing in a close race to John Quincy Adams. Four years later Jackson defeated Adams to become the Seventh President of the United States. America’s political party’s evolved and Jackson was the leader of the Democratic Party. He was a big supporter of states’ rights and supporterRead MoreEssay on The Face of Eating Disorders1599 Words   |  7 PagesBarbie soon leads Mattel to the forefront of the toy industry and fascinates generations of young girls† (â€Å"Barbie Doll Makes Her Debut† 1). Barbie Millicent Roberts, more commonly known as Barbie, began her magnifi cent journey into 125 different careers, all while balancing a thriving relationship with her boyfriend, Ken, in 1959. With her marvelous corvette and dream house, Barbie’s incredible array of outfits and accessories have changed playtime for young girls over decades of varying styles of

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Lyndon Baines Johnson And The President Of The United...

Lyndon Baines Johnson, also known as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969. He went into office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States under President John F. Kennedy, from 1961 to 1963. John Fitzgerald Jack Kennedy, also known as JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. These two presidents have similar and different views and values. Kennedy and Johnson were President around the same time, one after the other. They both had to deal with the same issues like the Cold War, Civil Rights protests and riots, The Vietnam War, and social upheaval of drug culture, rebellion, and rock and roll. During Kennedy’s presidency he had many significant accomplishments, but also had some setbacks. He was unable to get any real civil rights legislation passed, which to himself was a great failure. He was also unable to get taxes lowered and the Bay of Pigs Invasion was an embarrassing failure. Kennedy had done successful things like the Peace Corps. Thousands of Americans responded to Kennedy’s challenge and went forth into underdeveloped countries bringing education and medical supplies. The spirit of volunteerism was never higher and people world wide began to develop a different view of Americans. He also did some space programs, which began in 1961 when America pushed to put a man on the moon. This wasn’t an accomplished duringShow MoreRelatedLyndon Baines Johnson, also known as LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States. LBJ was800 Words   |  4 PagesLyndon Baines Johnson, also known as LBJ, was the 36th president of the United States. LBJ was very much involved in the political field as a Democrat, and he is one out of four people who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States (Representative, Senator, Vice President, and President). LBJ became president due to the assassination of John F. Kennedy as he was his running ma te for the 1960 presidential election. He designed a piece of legislation called â€Å"Great Society† thatRead MoreLyndon Baines Johnson s History870 Words   |  4 PagesLyndon Baines Johnson makes one of the most important historical figures of the United States because of the enormous changes brought in the states federation. During Lyndon Baines Johnson’s reign, there was a lot of evolution in the federal state laws (Andrews and Sarah Gaby 202). After the assassination of the JKF, Lyndon Baines Johnson moved quickly to becoming the president of United States. At the time he fostered the development of some of the largest reforms in the federal laws in the URead MoreLyndon Johnson s The Great Society924 Words   |  4 PagesOn 1964 Lyndon Baines Johnson delivered the speech, â€Å"The Great Society†. He traveled to Ann Arbor on May 22 to give his speech at the University of Michigan. Previously, Lyndon Johnson first mentioned â€Å"the great societyâ €  at the Ohio University. He stated, â€Å" And with your courage and with your compassion and your desire, we will build a Great Society. It is a Society where no child will go unfed, and no youngster will go unschooled,†(Remarks in Athens at Ohio University line 51-52). However, it Read MoreLyndon Baines Johnson Epitomized Texas In His Stature,1746 Words   |  7 PagesLyndon Baines Johnson epitomized Texas in his stature, his attitude, his tone, and his attitude. He was a force to be reckoned with and he used each of these attributes to push for legislation that he felt deeply about. His major influences were his parents and the rustic Hill Country of Texas. Johnson was born August 27, 1908, in Stonewall, Texas on an isolated farm in the Texas Hill Country to Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr. and Rebekah Baines Johnson. His mother was a woman â€Å"†¦ who treasured poetry, reveredRead More Lyndon Johnson Essay1259 Words   |  6 PagesLyndon Johnson Lyndon Johnson led the country for five years (1963-1968) after President John Fitzgerald Kennedy died of gunshot wounds on November 22, 1963. He formulated many policies and carried out many others that Kennedy could not finish. He faced many foreign problems as well, including the Vietnam War and the Cold War. How he dealt with foreign problems put him near last if not last in foreign affairs, when compared to other presidents. Johnson always talked to tourists and metRead MoreLyndon B. Johnson Biography784 Words   |  4 PagesApril 2016 Block 7 Am. History Lyndon B. Johnson Biography Lyndon B. Johnson was born August 27, 1908, in Stonewall, Texas Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr., a politician, farmer, cotton speculator, and newspaper owner, and Rebekah Baines Johnson, a homemaker and sometime newspaper editor (Smallwood). He was he first born of five children. Johnson started school school near his home along the Pedernales River in the Texas hill country at age four. Although at age four, Johnson attended the nearby one-room, one-teacherRead MoreThe Legacy Of Lyndon Baines Johnson1332 Words   |  6 PagesEarly life Lyndon Baines Johnson was born in Stonewall, Texas on August 27, 1908. He grew up right there in his hometown. His parents were Samuel Elay Johnson Jr. and Rebekah Baines. He was accompanied by his siblings Sam Houston Johnson, Rebekah Johnson, Lucia Johnson, and Josefa Johnson. For school he would run to the nearby, one-room junction school. He grew up on a farm but his grandfather had a dream of him becoming a member of the U.S. senate. He was a responsible young adult and out of collegeRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Lyndon Baines Johnsons Speech785 Words   |  4 PagesNovember 27, 1963 Lyndon Baines Johnson delivered a speech. This was just five days after president John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. Johnson, being the new president of the United States, explained what a great loss fellow Americans had just encountered. His purpose of this speech was to inspire the nation and support them in a time of grief. He also wanted to give the nation hope, in that they would work to meet JFK’s visions. The first words that Johnson say are, â€Å"Mr.Read MoreThe Legacy Of John F. Kennedy1879 Words   |  8 Pages The Vice President of United State in 1963, Lyndon Baines Johnson, political speech â€Å"Let Us Continue† he gave horrific news stating that the President of the United State of America which was John F. Kennedy has been assassinated. Lyndon’s purpose of the speech was comfort America after the death of John F. Kennedy and also to insure America that with this horrific tragedy that America has to go through he will continue the act of the forward thrust of America that John F. Kennedy had begun toRead MoreThe Legacy Of President Lyndon Baines Johnson1045 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Free at last, free at last....† President Lyndon Baines Johnson was born in Hill County in the August of 1908. As a child, he was a very smart, and he didn’t let his ‘low rank in society† affect his life. During his attendance at college, he took a jo b as a teacher. Lyndon Johnson started teaching at a segregated Mexican- American school. A segregated school was a school filled with one race, or can be seen as a racial isolation. In Cotulla, Texas, he taught Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh grade. After

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Tattoos and Their Relationship to Polynesian Culture Free Essays

â€Å"They print signs on people’s body and call this tattow†- James Cook (Losch, 2003). What might his first thoughts have been upon anchoring at one of the Polynesian islands, seeing natives covered in markings? What did the markings and designs mean? Could he have wondered what the significance was, who did this to them, and what was used to place those markings on them. Although tattoos were ultimately banned, there was an impact on the Polynesian culture; one could determine ones rank, status, and origin based on the tattoos. We will write a custom essay sample on Tattoos and Their Relationship to Polynesian Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now Tattoos have existed on the Polynesian islands for over 2000 years, Samoa being the oldest island in the Polynesian chain and Aotearoa-slash-Te Waipounamu being the youngest of the islands that practiced tattooing. Although the Spaniards were the first to discover tattoos in Polynesia in 1595, the first written descriptions regarding tattoos did not appear for almost two centuries (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Though there were differences between the Polynesian islands that made each island unique there were also similarities that were shared between all the islands. One of the primary differences between the tattoos on Polynesian islands was the traditional names that were used for tattooing. For example, many of the islands used traditional names for tattooing such as Moko from the island Maori, Tatatu from the island of Tonga, and Tatau from the island of Samoa. In fact the term tattoo originated from the Polynesian word â€Å"ta† which means to strike something and the Tahitian word â€Å"tatau† which means to mark something (Designbloom, 2000-2009). There were two basic design styles that were shared amongst all the Polynesian islands. The first design style was known as Etua and the second style was known as Enata (Hastings, 2009). The designs associated with Etua were of a strong spiritual nature, had a religious connotation, and were looked upon as magical symbols that would provide protection by the gods. The designs associated with Enata were based on natural designs which could be used to determine a native’s status, role, genealogy, occupation, and identity. The following are some examples of symbols based on Polynesian design and their meanings (Hastings 2009). Shark’s Teeth- Shark’s teeth tattoos are for protection Turtles- A turtle symbol represents long life and fertility Tiki- The god Tiki is often shown with eyes closed. This is because Tiki is able to smell trouble before it is seen. Although Enata and Etua were distinct styles, the patterns and designs used by the various islands, and the tribes of each island were distinct enough to set them apart from one another. The following was noted, â€Å"Within the islands currently known as French Polynesia (the Society, Tuamotu, Austral, Gambier and Marquesas groups), the individual island groups or even individual islands had unique designs. Thus, it was possible to identify a person’s origins based on their tattoos† (Losch, 2003). An example of the ability to identify natives based on their island of origin was the spiral motif used by the Maori natives of Aotearoa-slash-Te Waipounamu. Not only was it possible to identify the island of origin it was also possible to determine the status that one held within the tribe. The ritual of receiving a tattoo normally began as one reached teenage years; this was looked upon as a rite of passage into adulthood. Additional tattoos were added over time; the more a man was tattooed the more prestige he had (Opusmang, 2008). Tattoos played an important role in determining how one was looked upon within the tribe, tattoos were associated with wealth, strength, and power. Consequently, it was not uncommon for the chief, and the warriors to have the most detailed, and extensive tattoos. Additionally, Tattoos were so important in the culture that those men, who were completely tattooed, known as to’oata, were admired; however, those men who were not tattooed were despised by their tribe (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Tattoos on men were far more extensive then on women and included intricate designs. The tattoos on Samoan men’s thighs were so extensive that it almost appeared as though they were clothed. Additionally Samoan men had a tattoo that was referred to as a â€Å"pe’a† which covered their thighs, buttock, lower back, and concluded with a piece around their naval. Unlike the design of the female referred to as â€Å"malu†, which was a lace webbing design, the design of the â€Å"pe’a† was a solid pattern. As opposed to males, the tattoos on females were generally located on the hands, feet, arms, ears, and lips (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Women of wealth were allowed to have their legs tattooed if they chose to do so. There were additional differences that related to men and women when it came to tattoos. One such difference related to Tahitian women, it was common practice for them to have a deep blue hue on their loins and buttocks. Another common practice occurred when a young girl reached the age of 12, her right hand was tattooed, at which point she was allowed to prepare food, and join in the ritual of rubbing coconut oil on deceased members of the tribe (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Traditionally males were the most decorated members of the tribe; however this was not the case on Fiji and Tahiti. As a matter of fact it was the exact opposite; the females were required to have tattoos. The first tattoos that a young girl received were marks on the inside of her arms, she was then deemed free of food taboos, and was then allowed accept food from others (Opusmang, 2008). The island of Samoa could very well have ended up with the same tradition as Fiji and Tahiti if not for two Samoan sisters who received their training in Fiji. Upon their return trip from Fiji the Samoan sisters, who were credited with bringing the art and ritual of tattooing to Samoa, somehow managed to reverse the tradition (Losch, 2003). Thus it appears a new tradition was started quite by accident, which resulted in the extensive and intricate tattooing of the male natives on Samoa. This new tradition was adopted by many of the Polynesian islands. Tattooing was considered a ritual that was preceded by a ceremony. The preparation that led up to the ceremony was quite elaborate, a period of cleansing was required; one was expected to fast and abstain from contact with women during this period. The art of tattooing was described by Dr. ROLLIN in this manner: â€Å"The patient was immobilized most frequently in a sort of vise composed of two trunks of banana trees between which he was attached and held tight. The tattooer, accompanied by his assistants, sang a sort of chant of the occasion syncopated to the rhythm of the tapping of his little mallet. Each drop of blood was rapidly wiped up with a scrap of tapa, so that none be allowed to fall to the ground† (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). The ritual was very painful and could go on for several days or weeks. Specific tools and dye were created to perform the ritual act of tattooing. The tools were created out of either bone or tortoise shell. The implement was shaped into a comb with needles on the end, which was attached to a handle. The dye was created from the soot of burnt candlenut which was mixed with water or oil (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). The tool was dipped into the dye; the needles were placed on the person’s body and tapped with a mallet, which transferred the dye. This process was repeated numerous time until either the individual could no longer take the pain or the sun went down. Nevertheless, it was continued the following day, and many days thereafter until the design was complete. Performing the act of tattooing members of one’s tribe was considered a sacred act which was performed by a master or a shaman. In most instances it was the master or shaman that determined the type of design, who would receive the tattoo, and when (Losch, 2003). In fact they were highly trained, aware of the meanings of the designs, and highly proficient in the technical art that was involved. As a result, the master or shaman was held in high esteem by all members of the tribe. The practice of tattooing tribe members went on for many years until the arrival of missionaries in 1797. Soon after their arrival tattooing was banned by the missionaries, it was deemed to go against the Old Testament and was forbidden by Christian churches. Consequently tattooing remained on the fringes of society, in other cases the art of tattooing completely died out, as occurred on the islands of Tonga and Rapanui. As a result many of the original designs were thought to be lost when missionaries banned tattoos after their arrival in the in 1797. Ironically traditional Polynesian tattoo designs are reappearing due to over 400 notes and drawings that were done by a missionary named Karl Von Steinen (Tahiti Tatou, 2007). Prior to the banning of tattoos by missionaries in 1797 tattoos played an important role in the Polynesian culture. Tattoos had a direct impact on tribal hierarchy. In fact it was possible to determine the island of origin and the status one held in the tribe based on the design of the tattoos, the locations of the tattoos, and the number of tattoos that covered the body. There were, in fact, differences between male and female members of the tribe when it came to determining the location of the tattoos, the designs of the tattoos, and the quantity of tattoos. The fact that individuals were willing to endure such pain over many days or even weeks is an indication of how important tattooing was to the Polynesian culture. Try to imagine the pain associated with being tattooed, the only choices available are to proceed with the tattoo or risk being shunned, ostracized, and despised by the tribe. How to cite Tattoos and Their Relationship to Polynesian Culture, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Wall Street By Stone Essays - 20th Century Fox Films, Wall Street

Wall Street By Stone "Greed is good. Greed is right. Greed works." If any three simple sentences could sum up the 80s, those are probably the ones. The 1980s were an age of illusions, one that was hedonistic in nature and self-loathing in practice. As Haynes Johnson recalls, it was "a society favored with material riches beyond measure and a political system whose freedoms made it the envy of every nation on earth." Released in 1987, Oliver Stone's Wall Street was made in the height of 80s greed and materialism. The film revolves around the actions of two main characters, Bud Fox and Gordon Gekko. Bud is a young stockbroker who comes from a working-class family and Gekko is a millionaire whom Bud admires and longs to be associated with. The film is successful at pointing out how tragic it is to trade in morality for money. The character of Gordon Gekko personifies this message, and yet receives a standing ovation at a stockholders meeting after delivering a "greed is good" speech. The underlying theme of the movie, however, is that greed is bad. Economist George Gilder would say that individuals like Gekko who pursue only their self-interests are led, "as by an invisible hand," toward a greater welfare state. He says that people pursuing self-interest demand comfort and security and that they don't take the risks that result in growth and achievement. At the start of Wall Street, Bud Fox is young and very na?ve about the business world. He is a typical broker seeking new clients and offering second-hand advice regarding the buying and selling of stock. "Just once I'd like to be on that side," he says, dreaming of the day when he will be a corporate big shot controlling the flow of millions of dollars, like his hero, Gordon Gekko. In pursuit of his dream, Bud makes a visit to Gekko's office with a box of Havana cigars on his birthday in hopes of winning him over as a client. He wants to sell him stocks, and hopefully one day be like he is. Bud is desperate to do business with Gekko and he passes on some inside information about the airline company that his father works for. Gekko makes some money on the deal and opens an account with Bud. As the relationship between the two develops, we see a drastic change in Bud's character, as he becomes aware of the corruptness and ruthlessness of the industry in which he works. Gordon "Greed" Gekko is a money hungry, lizard-like (hence, the name "Gekko") corporate millionaire. He is the embodiment of the popular idea of "something for nothing." Throughout the movie, he says such things as "if something's worth doing it's worth doing for money" and "greed captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit." He has everything he could possible want--wife, family, estate, pool, limousine, priceless art objects--and yet, he seems unhappy. He represents the 80s of an insatiable desire to have more. Money to him is nothing; it is merely a way of keeping score to him--it is all a game. At a board meeting for a certain company, he concludes a speech by saying, "The point is, ladies and gentlemen, that greed, for lack of a better word, is good. Greed is right. Greed works." Although at times during the movie Gekko's success can be applauded, in the end, it is shown that his greed has many subsequent negative effects on those people that surround him. He is accused during the same board meeting of being a "destroyer of companies" and responds by proclaiming that he is a "liberator of companies!" However, his sole reason for buying into Bud's father's airline company is to make his money and split. It is only when Gekko betrays Bud by wrecking his father's airline company that Bud begins to realize that his actions are immoral and heeds the advice of his father, "Stop going for the easy buck and start producing something with your life. Create, instead of living off the buying and selling of others." Bud learns that greed is in fact bad and that it hurts other people. The target of Wall Street is not those criminals on Wall Street that commit illegal activities like that of Bud and Gekko. It is the value system of the 80s that places profits and wealth above any other consideration. The movie is clearly an attack on the greed and self-loathing of the 80s and shows the negative effects that it can have on society. A famous

Friday, March 20, 2020

Donna Karan essays

Donna Karan essays As quoted from Beauty Buzz website Donna Karan expresses herself as follows. Everything I do is a matter of heart, body and soul. For me, designing is a personal expression of who I am- wife, mother, artist and business person, the many roles that women everywhere are trying to balance. But before I can be anything else, Im a woman, with all the complications, feelings and emotions. This quote sums up what Donna Karan is perceived as, as well as, what she views herself as. This perception has been molded through years of obstacles and success. The following illustrates her victory through ups and downs. Donna Karan was born on October 2, 1948, in Forest Hills, New York. Her mother Helen, was a showroom model who later became a retail salesperson. She was often called, Queenie, I assume for the way she carried herself. Donnas father Gabbie, worked as a custom suit maker. Its almost as if Donnas life was pre-determined, lets face it, she had fashion influences everywhere of course she loved it. In fact, love isnt the word, she was infatuated with fashion. For example, Donna began experimenting with her very own designs and even took her passion to Liz Clairborne as an intern during the summer of her final year in high school as cited from the Angelfire website. As her love for fashion grew, Donna decided to attend The Parson School of Design in New York. That was to become her first obstacle. During that summer she managed to geta job with Anne Klein. Thus, the problem is born, co-workers convinced Donna not to go back to Parsons and continue working. She agreed only to find herself fired 9 months later. However, her connection with Anne Klein wasnt over, not even close. Sometime later Anne Klein offered Donna Karan a better position in the company, so she joined as an Associate Designer in 1971. In reality Klein depended on her very much, so much...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Antibiotics - Discovery and Resistance

Antibiotics - Discovery and Resistance Antibiotics and antimicrobial agents are drugs or chemicals that are used to kill or hinder the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics specifically target bacteria for destruction while leaving other cells of the body unharmed. Under normal conditions, our immune system is capable of handling the germs that invade the body. Certain white blood cells known as lymphocytes protect the body against cancerous cells, pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), and foreign matter. They produce antibodies which bind to a specific antigen (disease causing agent) and label the antigen for destruction by other white blood cells. When our immune system gets overwhelmed, antibiotics can be useful in assisting the bodys natural defenses in controlling bacterial infections. While antibiotics have proven to be powerful antibacterial agents, they are not effective against viruses. Viruses are not independent living organisms. They infect cells and rely on the hosts cellular machinery for viral replication. Antibiotics Discovery Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered. Penicillin is derived from a substance produced from molds of the Penicillium fungi. Penicillin works by disrupting bacterial cell wall assembly processes and interfering with bacterial reproduction. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, but it wasnt until the 1940s that antibiotic use revolutionized medical care and substantially reduced death rates and illnesses from bacterial infections. Today, other penicillin-related antibiotics including ampicillin, amoxicillin,  methicillin, and flucloxacillin are used to treat a variety of infections. Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is becoming more and more common. Due to the prevalent use of antibiotics, resistant strains of bacteria are becoming much more difficult to treat. Antibiotic resistance has been observed in bacteria such as E.coli and MRSA. These super bugs represent a threat to public health since they are resistant to most commonly used antibiotics. Health officials warn that antibiotics should not be used to treat common colds, most sore throats, or the flu because these infections are caused by viruses. When used unnecessarily, antibiotics can lead to the spread of resistant bacteria. Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. These common bacteria infect about 30 percent of all people. In some people, S. aureus is a part of the normal group of bacteria that inhabit the body and may be found in areas such as the skin and the nasal cavities. While some staph strains are harmless, others pose serious health problems including foodborne illness, skin infections, heart disease, and meningitis. S. aureus bacteria favor the iron which is contained within the oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin found within red blood cells. S. aureus bacteria break open blood cells to obtain the iron within the cells. Changes within some strains of S. aureus have helped them to survive antibiotic treatments. Current antibiotics work by disrupting so-called cell viability processes. Disruption of cell membrane assembly processes or DNA translation are common modes of operation for current generation antibiotics. To combat this, S. aureus have devel oped a single gene mutation that alters the organisms cell wall. This enables them to prevent breaches of the cell wall by antibiotic substances. Other antibiotic resistant bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, produce a protein called MurM. This protein counteracts the effects of antibiotics by helping to rebuild the bacterial cell wall. Fighting Antibiotic Resistance Scientists are taking various approaches to deal with the issue of antibiotic resistance. One method focuses on interrupting the cellular processes involved in the sharing of genes among bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. These bacteria share resistant genes among themselves and can even bind to DNA in their environment and transport the DNA across the bacterial cell membrane. The new DNA containing the resistant genes is then incorporated into the bacterial cells DNA. Using antibiotics to treat this type of infection can actually induce this transfer of genes. Researchers are focusing on ways to block certain bacterial proteins to prevent the transfer of genes between bacteria. Another approach to fighting antibiotic resistance actually focuses on keeping the bacteria alive. Instead of trying to kill the resistant bacteria, scientists are looking to disarm them and make them incapable of causing infection. The intent of this approach is to keep the bacteria alive, but harmle ss. It is thought that this will help prevent the development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. As scientists better understand how bacteria gain resistance to antibiotics, improved methods for treating antibiotic resistance can be developed. Learn more about antibiotics and antibiotic resistance: Scientists Target Bacterial Transfer of Resistance GenesDisarming Disease-Causing BacteriaBacteria Discovery Could Lead to Antibiotics Alternatives Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work. Updated 05/01/12.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Managerial Finance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Managerial Finance - Research Paper Example 19964 million. J Sainsbury plc consists of Sainsbury’s - a chain of 547 supermarkets and 343 convenience stores and the Sainsbury’s Bank (Jsainsburys, 2011). One of the most innovative services offered by the company is its online servicing and delivery system. Customers can make their purchases online and Sainsbury will deliver to 90% of the UK households. The system generates over 100,000 orders per week. The firm has a division called Sainsbury Property that has a portfolio that includes 297 freehold and long leasehold properties and 43 joint venture properties (Jsainsburys). The retail operation of the company generates 19 million customers transaction every week. Five Business Ratios (2009-2010) 2009 2010 Net margin 289 / 18911 = 1.53% 585 / 19994 = 2.93% Current ratio 1268 / 4511 = 0.28 1797 / 2793 = 0.64 Return on capital 289 / 4157 = 6.95% 585 / 4966 = 11.78% Debt ratio 9836 / 5679 = 1.73 10855 / 5889 = 1.84 Earnings per share 16.6 32.1 Sainsbury vs. FTSE100 ind ex This part of the paper will demonstrate a comparison between the market price of the Sainsbury common stock and the FTSE 100 index. The graph that show the movement in the price of the stock and the index are illustrated in appendix A and appendix B. In order to evaluate the results further qualitative information based on company news is going to be used to attempt to interpret the results of the graph. The FTSE graph shows many fluctuations in up and down with the steepest downward in July 2011. Overall the general trend of the index prices was that the price of the index went up during the last year. During the first quartile of the graph the trend in prices of the Sainsbury was very similar to the movement in the FTSE 100 graph. The price of the Sainsbury stock peak in September 2010 and it bottom out during April of 2011. A piece of news that always shakes the price of common stocks is the release of quarterly results. The latest quarterly results of the company were release d in March 23, 2011. The graph illustrates that after the release of this piece of news the price of the stock after being the lowest point during the last year it began to steadily go up until May of this year. Analysis of Sainsbury financial performance In order to determine the viability of Sainsbury (J) as possible stock investment alternative this paper will analyze the company’s overall financial performance. The analysis includes their operations and how Sainsbury (J) compares with other similar stocks and its industry sector. By comparing key financial ratios we can visualize the overall financial position of the company and how the company compares to its overall industry sector in order to determine its attractiveness as a stock investment in a personal investment portfolio. Sainsbury (J) has become a leader in the grocery foods sector with a 16.9% market share in the UK. The company has made a number of fundamental changes in recent years in order to enhance overal l competitiveness and fuel future growth. Sainsbury is known to be the world leader in Fair Trade Products with around 25% of all Fair trade Products in the UK. The company was also named Supermarket of the Year at the 2009 Retail Industry Awards for their efforts to innovate and adapt to changing customer needs over the last year. Sainsbury’s operational focus is centered accelerating future growth and sustainability. The five key operational areas the company focuses on in order to further increase its market